title
Harvest surveys at U.S. Forest Service public use cabins in southeast Alaska, 1993
author
Array ( [0] => Jones, J. D. )
abstract
We conducted a postal survey of parties reserving U.S. Forest Service (USFS) recreational cabins located in cutthroat trout or steelhead systems in Southeast Alaska in 1993. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on trout catches, harvest, and effort from USFS cabins in Southeast Alaska. This report presents findings for that survey. The portion of the survey that targeted cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki estimated that anglers spent a total of 21,454 hours to catch 27,948 cutthroat trout, 80 steelhead, 3,085 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, 1,177 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, and 2,828 Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma. The portion of the survey that targeted steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss estimated that anglers spent a total of 29,247 hours to catch 1,025 steelhead, 3,893 rainbow trout, 9,562 cutthroat trout, 1,278 kokanee, and 8,203 Dolly Varden.
date
1994-11-01
organization
ADF&G Division of Sport Fish
species
Array ( [0] => Not Specified )
file_path
https://grey-lit.s3.wasabisys.com/harvest-surveys-at-u-s-forest-service-public-use-cabins-in-southeast-alaska-1993.pdf
thumb
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content
Fishery Data Series No. 94-39 Harvest Surveys at U.S. Forest Service Public Use Cabins in Southeast Alaska, 1993 bY J. Douglas Jones November 1994 Alaska Department of Fish and Game Division of Sport Fish FISHERY DATA SERIES NO. 94-39 HARVEST SURVEYS AT U.S. FOREST SERVICE PUBLIC USE CABINS IN SOUTHEAST ALASKA, 1993’ J. Douglas Jones Alaska Department of Fish and Game Division of Sport Fish Anchorage, Alaska November 1994 This investigation was partially financed by the Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 777-777K) under Project F- 1 O-8, F- 1 O-9, R- 1 - 1, and R- l-4. The Fishery Data Series was established in 1987 for the publication of technically oriented results for a single project or group of closely related projects. Fishery Data Series reports are intended for fishery and other technical professionals. Distribution is to state and local publication distribution centers, libraries, and individuals and, on request, to other libraries, agencies, and individuals. This publication has undergone editorial and peer review. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game administers all programs and activities free from discrimination on the basis of sex, color, race, religion, national origin, age, marital status, pregnancy, parenthood, or disability. For information on alternative formats available for this and other department publications, contact the department ADA Coordinator at (voice) 907-465-4120, or (TDD) 907-465-3646. Any person who believes s/he has been discriminated against should write to: ADF&G, P.O. Box 25526, Juneau, AK 99802-5526; or O.E.O., U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ ii LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. Ill LIST OF APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... iv ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................... 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. 2 METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................ 4 RESULTS ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................................. 1 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 11 LITERATURE CITED ................................................................................................................................ 1 1 APPENDIX A.. ........................................................................................................................................... 15 APPENDIX B . ............................................................................................................................................ 19 APPENDIX C ............................................................................................................................................ .23 APPENDIX D ............................................................................................................................................. 27 APPENDIX E ............................................................................................................................................. 31 APPENDIX F .............................................................................................................................................. 35 LIST OF TABLES 1. Number of registered parties, responding parties, and total estimated effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for cutthroat trout systems surveyed in Southeast Alaska in 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Number of registered parties, responding parties, and total estimated effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for USFS cabins on steelhead streams in Southeast Alaska in 1993.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Summary of how parties rated cutthroat trout fishing from the cabins they visited during 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure E&z+e 1. Harvests of cutthroat trout in fresh water in Southeast Alaska, 1977-1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Angler effort (days fished) in fresh water in Southeast Alaska, 1977-1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Steelhead trout harvests in southern and northern Southeast Alaska, 1977-1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Graphic characterization of angler responses about fishing quality at cutthroat lakes in Southeast Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . 111 LIST OF APPENDICES Apnendix A. B. C D. E. F. Standard errors of estimates by system for effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for selected cutthroat trout systems in Southeast Alaska in 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard errors of estimates by system for effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for steelhead systems in Southeast Alaska in 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sum and average of hours fished, harvest, and numbers released per responding party, for cutthroat trout and steelhead trout recreational surveys, by survey strata and mailing, 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... Summary of the number of reservations and average party size by seasonal strata for the cutthroat trout mailout survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of the number of reservations and average party size by seasonal strata for the steelhead mailout survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of data files and analysis programs developed for the cabin survey study, 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 21 25 29 33 37 iv ABSTRACT We conducted a postal survey of parties reserving U.S. Forest Service (USFS) recreational cabins located in cutthroat trout or steelhead systems in Southeast Alaska in 1993. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on trout catches, harvest, and effort from USFS cabins in Southeast Alaska. This report presents findings for that survey. The portion of the survey that targeted cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki estimated that anglers spent a total of 21,454 hours to catch 27,948 cutthroat trout, 80 steelhead, 3,085 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, 1,177 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, and 2,828 Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma. The portion of the survey that targeted steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss estimated that anglers spent a total of 29,247 hours to catch 1,025 steelhead, 3,893 rainbow trout, 9,562 cutthroat trout, 1,278 kokanee, and 8,203 Dolly Varden. KEY WORDS: Harvest, catch, steelhead, cutthroat, rainbow, trout, kokanee, Dolly Varden, effort, angler, Southeast Alaska, recreation, cabin survey, creel census, mail survey. INTRODUCTION Harvests of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clurki in freshwater systems in Southeast Alaska are declining (1977-1992), while angler effort in fresh water is increasing (Figures l-2) (Mills 1979-1993). Also, fewer large cutthroat trout are being entered in the Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) Trophy Fish Program, suggesting that populations in the most productive lakes have declined in the past decade. Regulations in effect in 1993 included a daily bag limit of five fish, only one of which could be over 16 inches, and a possession limit of 2 daily bag limits. Due to a growing concern by the public and the ADF&G for the cutthroat trout fisheries in Southeast Alaska, catch-and-release only fishing for cutthroat trout in Turner, Reflection, and Wilson lakes was retained in 1993. In contrast, harvests of steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Southeast Alaska increased from 1977 to 1989 but declined by 75% since then (Figure 3). There is considerable concern for populations of steelhead trout in Southeast Alaska because catch rates and escapements in some well-known streams have declined (Harding and Jones 1993). Regulations in effect in 1993 allowed a bag limit of five fish, only two of which could be 16 inches or larger. Forty-eight stream systems were made catch-and-release only for steelhead due to conservation concerns. Changes in cutthroat and steelhead trout populations may be related to increased effort (Figure 2) because cutthroat are very susceptible to fishing pressure (Behnke 1985), increasing angler skill, stocking of other salmonid species because cutthroat are easily displaced by many other species (Griffith 1988), laddering of systems which allows other salmonid species into cutthroat habitat, and land use practices like logging which increases access to streams with roads and alters the habitat in and around the small streams important to cutthroat (Meehan 1991). The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) maintains recreational cabins on most important cutthroat trout lakes and steelhead streams in Southeast Alaska. The number of visitor-days to USFS cabins has increased in the past 15 years. Most angler effort for these species in systems with cabins probably originates from these cabins. This study estimated angler effort, catch, and harvest of all species of fish at USFS recreational cabins on steelhead trout streams and on cutthroat trout lakes in Southeast Alaska. Site-specific data on effort, catch, harvest, and release rates were needed to help identify potential problems in remote fisheries, a need identified in the Strategic Plans for Juneau, Sitka, and Ketchikan (Schwan 1990). This survey information was used to help managers evaluate the effects of regulations and to develop a regionwide management plan in late 1993. The information from this survey was used to formulate a management plan for both steelhead and cutthroat trout in 1993 which resulted in extensive regulatory changes by the Board of Fisheries in January of 1994. In future years information from this survey will be used to evaluate the effect of the regulatory changes on the fisheries. The objectives for 1993 were: 1. to estimate angler effort, catch, and harvest of steelhead trout, cutthroat trout, rainbow trout 0. mykiss, kokanee 0. nerka, and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma by USFS cabin for parties registered to use these cabins on steelhead streams in Southeast Alaska. 2. to estimate angler effort, catch, and harvest of cutthroat trout, rainbow trout, kokanee, and Dolly Varden by lake for parties registered to use USFS cabins on selected lakes in Southeast Alaska. 3. to estimate the proportion of days fished by parties registered to use selected USFS cabins where cut-throat trout harvests were limited because a bag or possession limit was reached. 2 Harvest 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 ’ I I I I I I I 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Year Figure 1. Harvests of cutthroat trout in fresh water in Southeast Alaska, 1977-1992. Data are from the statewide harvest survey (Mills 1979-1993). Effort in Angler Days 100,000 90,000 - 80,000 - 70,000 - 60,000 - 50,000 - 40,000 - 30,000 ’ I I I I I I I I 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Year Figure 2. Angler effort (days fished) in fresh water in Southeast Alaska, 1977-1992. Data are from the statewide harvest survey (Mills 1979-1993). Harvest 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 ' 1 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Year Figure 3. Steelhead trout harvests in Southeast Alaska, 1977-1992. Data are from the statewide harvest survey (Mills 1979-1993). METHODS A postal survey questionnaire identical to that used in 1992 (Jones 1993), was used to estimate angler effort, catch, and harvests by registered users of USFS cabins at 27 cutthroat trout lakes and 22 steelhead streams in 1993. Names of USFS cabin users were obtained from USFS cabin reservation lists from each of the ranger districts in Southeast. At cutthroat trout lakes where harvests of cutthroat trout were limited by the bag or possession limit, angler effort, catch, harvest, and the proportion of fishing days were surveyed by sending questionnaires to parties registered to use each of the selected cabins from January 1 through December 31, 1993 (Table 1). At cabins on steelhead river systems, angler effort, catch and harvest of steelhead trout were surveyed by sending questionnaires to parties registered to use each of the cabins from January 1 through December 3 1, 1993 (Table 2). Each registered “party head” was sent a two-page questionnaire and a cover letter. The first page of the questionnaire (Appendix F) asks the party head if the reservation was used, the number of members in the group, if any members of the party fished, and how they would rate the fishing if they fished. The second page of the questionnaire (slightly different for each of the two surveys) asked about the number of days and hours party members fished, the numbers of steelhead, cutthroat trout, rainbow trout, kokanee, and Dolly Varden caught and kept, and the numbers of each species caught and released, by angler. The second page of questionnaires sent to users of cabins on cutthroat trout lakes also asked whether bag limits for cutthroat trout were restrictive and about catches of cutthroat trout above and below 18” in length. Information on bag or possession limits from steelhead anglers was not requested since the bag limit was one fish per day. For these anglers, the proportion of days fished with a catch or harvest (angler success) was more informative. Also, anglers in these systems were not asked about harvests of large and small cutthroat trout. Reservation lists were obtained from the USFS after May 3 1, October 3 1, and December 3 1, 1993. Mailings to “party heads” in each list were conducted separately: e.g., all anglers scheduled to have completed the use of a cabin between January 1 and May 31 were sent surveys as if they represented a 4 Table 1. Number of registered parties, responding parties, and total estimated effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for cutthroat trout systems surveyed in Southeast Alaska in 1993. System Cutthroat Steelhead Rainbow Kokanee Dolly Varden Lost’ Registered Responding Days Hours Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Bakewell Lake Baranof Lake Distin Lake Eagle Lake Ella Lake Essowah Lake Florence Lake Goulding Lake Hasselborg Lake Heckman Lake Humpback Lake Jims Lake Jordan Lake ul Juneau Area Lake Alexander Lake Eva Lake Kathleen Manzanita Lake Orchard Lake Patching Lake Rainbow Lake Salmon Lake Sweetwater Lake Taku River Turner Lake Virginia Lake Wilson Lake Young Lake Y Y Y Y Y 17 14 180 16 9 53 29 18 63 5 2 12 86 46 344 9 4 99 27 18 94 9 4 40 87 61 587 33 23 500 33 18 229 29 18 162 36 22 223 14 10 0 31 21 95 38 25 382 15 14 37 61 47 305 18 12 133 25 16 180 5 4 13 42 31 230 74 42 351 19 15 8 77 60 379 19 8 105 42 25 237 68 41 268 690 199 149 48 1,338 719 423 92 2,379 2.906 1341 615 ,362 0 399 1 ,265 131 1,103 671 644 43 398 1,250 18 1,373 60 1,051 785 108 437 0 0 7 35 0 0 5 27 161 339 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 122 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 441 2,098 0 0 272 114 0 11 5 12 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 197 1,990 3 0 0 0 0 50 5 27 8 68 0 0 19 24 0 0 0 0 840 2,152 0 0 6 1 14 141 38 107 164 1,103 0 20 189 1,017 17 49 14 136 208 2,610 0 0 0 10 9 0 23 104 188 647 0 0 7 16 0 0 1 0 12 271 0 33 147 442 27 0 11 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 162 388 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 36 441 0 24 10 128 3 0 73 884 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 251 996 0 0 72 116 42 328 7 33 186 1,088 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 26 322 1,317 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 38 0 0 0 0 70 393 0 0 24 13 8 40 76 417 145 841 0 0 0 16 23 0 20 251 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 712 0 0 23 199 94 216 38 290 151 1,050 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 53 107 4,303 0 0 0 79 11 12 0 9 147 574 0 0 20 0 25 36 13 74 Total 1.029 664 5.311 21.454 3.990 23.958 3 77 837 2.248 294 883 329 2.499 ’ Lost (Y) indicates that the seasonal* system estimates were lost due to nonresponses, and the reported totals are biased low as a result. Table 2. Number of registered parties , responding parties, and total estimated effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for USFS cabins on steelhead streams in Southeast Alaska in 1993. Cutthroat Steelhead Rainbow Kokanee Dolly Varden System PBias’ Registered Responding Days Hours Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Admiralty Creek 0 67 49 186 632 61 381 2 3 45 73 0 9 59 250 Anan Bay 0 15 8 66 131 0 107 4 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 Andrew Creek 0 5 5 1 2 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Castle River 0 41 31 265 931 69 733 1 1 16 528 0 262 14 303 Fish Creek 0 74 46 1,119 1,124 83 391 0 55 0 47 0 0 89 926 Harding River 0 9 6 13 37 0 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 Hugh Smith Lake 0 11 4 41 165 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italio River 0 10 9 150 817 44 162 1 2 2 12 0 0 9 23 Kadake Bay 0 7 7 45 141 11 64 0 0 10 21 0 0 0 6 Kah Sheets Lake 1 44 28 404 1,665 85 234 0 5 37 436 0 3 20 73 Karta River 0 112 72 1,453 7,477 773 2,352 91 236 99 708 73 317 357 2,067 Kegan Creek 0 48 34 676 1,987 155 892 5 3 58 366 29 169 60 876 m Kook Lake 0 14 11 85 484 1 140 0 0 1 42 0 0 0 167 McDonald Lake 0 33 20 468 2,133 31 251 19 197 64 307 0 0 211 863 Petersburg Lake 0 21 14 134 540 0 17 0 0 0 12 0 0 15 45 Red Bay Lake 0 18 12 152 693 2 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 36 218 Reflection Lake 0 20 16 184 1,021 15 106 0 25 29 15 0 0 38 31 Salmon Bay Lake 0 29 23 281 1,416 72 574 0 38 16 118 0 206 103 250 Sarkar Lake 0 51 31 138 581 49 126 0 0 81 311 15 60 29 75 Sitkoh Lake 0 35 21 223 1,263 10 332 0 5 0 97 17 103 22 59 Situk River 1 65 54 947 4,785 60 431 0 283 91 234 0 15 98 456 Staney Creek 0 76 54 310 1,222 107 559 20 23 0 17 0 0 38 312 Total 805 555 7,341 29,247 1,628 7,934 143 882 549 3,344 134 1,144 1,203 7,000 ’ pBias = number of cabins in the system lost due to nonresponse: pBias>O implies the totals are biased low. unique population. The survey was thus seasonally stratified. Response data for each stratum were processed independently of data in other strata. For each stratum, three mailings were conducted. The first mailing was sent to all party heads. If a response was not received within three weeks a second mailing was sent. If after an additional three weeks a response was not received, a final mailing was sent. In each temporal stratum, total reported harvest H, at each cabin (for the steelhead survey) or lake (for the cutthroat survey) was the sum over mailings, m=l..3: If response was not lOO%, means, medians, and histograms of harvest per responding party for each mailing were made to decide if response to each mailing was similar. Visual comparisons between and across cabins were used to help identify trends in reported harvest per responding party by mailing. Since no trends were identified, total harvest H at the cabin (for the steelhead survey) or lake (for the cutthroat survey) was calculated: where N, = number of responding parties, N = number of parties on the USFS reservation list. Calculation of total effort E and total catch C at each cabin or lake by species was as above after substituting the appropriate variable for H. Occasionally, items were missing in a response: For example, a party head listed catch but not effort, or listed effort but not catch. Because this occurred at a very low rate in this survey (all were less than 3%), no adjustments or estimates for missing data items were made. Variances for the estimated totals were computed using the formula for simple random sampling (Cochran 1977): V[H] = (1- $N’ c ( z, H, -BJ2 N,(N, -1) which was justified by the finding no differences in mean response per party by mailing. Effort, catch, and harvest for each cutthroat trout lake (Table 1) or steelhead stream (Table 2) and their variances (Appendix A-B) were obtained by summing point estimates for the individual cabins or systems over surveys or seasons. The proportion of days that bag or possession limits for cutthroat trout were restricted was included to provide an indication of the effect of current and proposed management regulations at these fishing areas. The proportion was estimated: where D, = number of days in which respondents report angling was restricted by a bag or possession limit, and D = number of days of angling reported. RESULTS There were no apparent trends in the average harvest per responding party (Appendix C) in any of the three mailings for steelhead or cutthroat trout. As a result, direct expansions (Equation 2) were used to calculate total effort, catch, and harvest. Anglers spent an estimated 21,454 hours spread over 5,311 fishing days to harvest 3,990 cutthroat trout, 3steelhead, 837 rainbow trout, 294 kokanee, and 329 Dolly Varden from the cutthroat lakes surveyed in 1993 (Table 1). Anglers also caught and released another 23,958 cutthroat trout, 77 steelhead, 2,248 rainbow trout, 883 kokanee, and 2,499 Dolly Varden in these systems. In the steelhead streams with USFS cabins, anglers spent an estimated 29,247 hours spread over 7,341 days to harvest 143 steelhead trout, 549 rainbow trout, 1,628 cutthroat trout, 134 kokanee, and 1,203 Dolly Varden in 1993 (Table 2). Anglers also reported catching and releasing another 882 steelhead, 3,344 rainbow trout, 7,934 cutthroat trout, 1,144 kokanee, and 7,000 Dolly Varden from these systems. In total, 5,618 cutthroat trout, 146 steelhead trout, 1,386 rainbow trout, 428 kokanee, and 1,532 Dolly Varden were harvested in 50,701 hours of effort spread over 12,652 days in the systems with USFS cabins included in this survey. An additional 31,892 cutthroat trout, 959 steelhead, 5,592 rainbow trout, 2,027 kokanee, and 9,499 Dolly Varden were caught and released. Respondents to the cutthroat trout survey were asked how many days their fishing was limited by the current bag and possession limits. In 1993, anglers reported that their harvest was restricted by bag limits on only 7% of the total days fished. Party heads rated fishing for cutthroat trout at the cabin they visited from excellent to poor (Table 3, Figure 4). The cabins at Essowah Lake, Eagle Lake, and Lake Kathleen received only poor ratings for cutthroat fishing. At the other extreme, Baranof Lake got only good to excellent ratings. In the steelhead survey, 54% of the anglers responding reported catching a steelhead during the period from January through May. For the whole year, 14% of the anglers reported catching a steelhead. Almost 62% of the respondents to the survey used their cabin reservations in 1993. Of the respondents who used their reservations, 437 (84.5%) reported that they fished at some time during their stay. The average party was 3.3 people (Appendix C-D), with a range from 1 to 13 people per party. Of parties reserving cabins, 1,233 (67.7%) originated from within Alaska, and the remaining parties (587) originated from outside of Alaska. Of the out-of-state parties, 426 (69.4%) used their cabin reservations, and 622 (50.4%) of the parties originating from Alaska used their reservations. Out-of-state parties also fished longer while at a USFS cabin: out-of-state anglers fished an average of 23.1 hours, while anglers from Alaska fished an average of only 9.2 hours during their stay. Table 3. Summary of how parties rated cutthroat trout fishing from the cabins they visited during 1993. System Excellent Good Fair Poor Bakewell Lake 1 3 4 5 Baranof Lake 2 2 0 0 Distin Lake 0 2 5 3 Eagle Lake 0 0 0 1 Ella Lake 5 8 11 6 Essowah Lake 0 0 0 3 Florence Lake 4 3 3 0 Goulding Lake 1 1 0 1 Hasselborg Lake 4 24 11 3 Heckman Lake 1 6 7 7 Humpback Lake 7 3 4 1 Jims Lake 3 5 4 0 Jordan Lake 1 0 5 6 Lake Alexander 2 3 2 4 Lake Kathleen 0 0 0 3 Manzanita Lake 7 7 12 8 Orchard Lake 2 2 4 1 Patching Lake 2 1 6 3 Rainbow Lake 0 0 1 1 Salmon Lake 2 3 5 7 Sweetwater Lake 2 2 6 15 Turner Lake 4 5 10 18 Virginia Lake 2 1 0 2 Wilson Lake 11 5 1 1 Young Lake 3 7 6 10 Total 66 93 107 109 Saranof Mmpback Hasselborg Vlrglnla Manzanlta Patting Turner Florence Alexander Orchard Heckman Dlstln Sweetwater Jordan Ralnbow Essowah Eagle Kathleen Figure 4. Graphic characterization of angler responses about fishing quality at cutthroat lakes in Southeast Alaska. The icons were generated in SYSTAT (Wilkinson 1990). Variables (the rating as proportions of all responses) are: Excellent (curvature of mouth), Good (angle of brow), Fair (width of nose), and Poor (length of nose). Faces are ordered in the plot by subjective criteria. Also see the data on Table 3. 10 DISCUSSION Angler success for steelhead was down in 1993 from results reported in 1992 (Jones 1993). In 1993,46% of the anglers responding caught a steelhead during the spring steelhead season, compared with 56% during the same period in 1992. For the calendar year, 14% of anglers fishing steelhead streams reported catching a steelhead in 1993, compared with 26% in 1992. Anglers fishing at USFS cabins located on cutthroat trout lakes in 1993 reported being limited by harvest regulations (bag and possession limits) on only 7% of the days they fished, compared with 24% in 1992 (Jones 1993). Comparing 1993 angler ratings for cutthroat trout fishing (Table 3 and Figure 4) with those of 1992, it is apparent that anglers were not as satisfied with the fishing in 1993. Some anglers may also hold very high expectations, or they may base the quality of their fishing experience on criteria that were seldom met. Some of the change in angler satisfaction may result from a decline in the overall cutthroat catch rates in 1993. Anglers caught an average of 1.8 cutthroat per hour in 1992 and 1.3 cutthroat per hour in 1993. The summer of 1993 was unusually warm, and anglers reported difficulty catching cutthroat trout during the extended dry spell. Certain of the USFS recreational cabins were more popular than others in 1993 (Appendix C and D). Of all the cabins surveyed, Staney Creek on Prince of Wales Island had the most registered parties (76) in a season. In contrast, the cabin at McGilvery Creek (in the Karta River system) had only four registered parties. Release rates for all species surveyed were high in 1993 and very comparable to the release rates reported in 1992. In total, the release rate for cutthroat trout (for both surveys combined) was 83% in 1992 and 85% in 1993. For steelhead, release rates dropped from 95% in 1992 to 87% in 1993. In 1993, 48 of the better steelhead streams were catch-and-release only for steelhead, which was up from 24 streams in 1992. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Linda Edwards and Rhonda George who did most of the data entry for this project; their help, suggestions and time were very much appreciated. LITERATURE CITED Behnke, R. J. 1985. About trout-greenback cutthroat. Trout 26( 1):42-46. Cochran, W. G. 1977. Sampling techniques, third edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Griffith, J. S. 1988. Review of Competition between cutthroat trout and other salmonids. American Fisheries Society Symposium 4: 135- 140. Harding, R. and D. Jones. 1993. Karta River Steelhead: 1992 escapement and creel survey studies. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 93-30, Anchorage. Jones, J. D. 1993. Southeast Alaska Recreational Cabin Survey, 1992. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 93-53, Anchorage. 11 LITERATURE CITED (Continued) Jones, J. D., R. Marshall, and R. Harding. 1992. Cutthroat trout studies at Florence and Hasselborg Lakes, Southeast Alaska, 199 1. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 92- 43, Anchorage. Meehan, W. R., editor. 1991. Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19. Mills, M. J. 1979. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 197% 1979, Project F-9- 11,20 (SW-I-A), Juneau. . 1980. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1979- 1980, Project F-9- 12,2 1 (SW-I-A), Juneau. 1981a. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1979). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. . Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1980-1981, Project F-9-13, 22 (SW-I-A), Juneau. 198 1 b. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1980). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. . Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1980-1981, Project F-9-13, 22 (SW-I-A), Juneau. 1982. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1981). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. . Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1981-1982, Project F-9-14, 23 (SW-I-A), Juneau. 1983. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1982). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. . Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1982-1983, Project F-9-l 5, 24 (SW-I-A), Juneau. 1984. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1983). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. . Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1983-1984, Project F-9-16, 25 (SW-I-A), Juneau. . 1985. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1984). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1984-1985, Project F-9-17, 26 (SW-I-A), Juneau. 1986. Alaska statewide sport fish harvest studies (1985). Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Fish Restoration, Annual Performance Report, 1985-1986, Project F-10-1, 27 (RT-2) Juneau. -------. 1987. Alaska statewide sport fisheries harvest report (1986). Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No 2, Anchorage. -. 1988. Alaska statewide sport fisheries harvest report (1987). Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 52, Anchorage. 12 LITERATURE CITED (Continued) . 1989. Alaska statewide sport fisheries harvest report (1988). Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 122, Anchorage. 1990. Harvest and participation in Alaska sport fisheries during 1989. Alaska Department of Fish . and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 90-44, Anchorage. . 1991. Harvest, catch, and participation in Alaska sport fisheries during 1990. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 91-58, Anchorage. . 1992. Harvest, catch, and participation in Alaska sport fisheries during 1991. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 92-40, Anchorage. . 1993. Harvest, catch, and participation in Alaska sport fisheries during 1992. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 92-42, Anchorage. Schwan, M. 1990. Strategic plans for the Juneau, Ketchikan, and Sitka recreational fisheries. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau. 13 APPENDIX A 15 Appendix A. Standard errors of estimates by system for effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for selected cutthroat trout systems in Southeast Alaska in 1993. System VBias’ Days Hours Cutthroat Steelhead Rainbow Kokanee Dolly Varden Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Bakewell Lake Baranof Lake Distin Lake Eagle Lake Ella Lake Essowah Lake Florence Lake Goulding Lake Hasselborg Lake Heckman Lake Humpback Lake Jims Lake 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 61 14 64 13 35 14 37 0 0 74 127 0 0 7 35 0 0 65 539 0 0 3 1 0 0 57 731 2 0 6 51 0 0 78 202 0 0 27 177 0 7 42 496 0 0 52 127 0 0 5 58 0 12 0 0 0 0 35 101 0 0 10 78 0 10 0 0 0 0 32 136 0 0 35 378 0 0 87 443 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 172 0 0 65 317 0 0 0 7 0 0 11 90 0 0 57 397 0 0 33 737 0 0 3 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 11 0 0 37 193 z Jordan Lake Juneau Area Lake Alexander Lake Eva Lake Kathleen Manzanita Lake Orchard Lake Patching Lake Rainbow Lake Salmon Lake Sweetwater Lake Taku River Turner Lake Virginia Lake Wilson Lake Young Lake 41 473 16 89 18 45 54 231 32 256 36 266 24 167 36 265 0 0 17 83 53 178 8 26 19 81 20 116 27 94 2 10 64 73 48 220 3 6 29 129 40 24 28 150 151 0 0 15 3 42 0 4 64 0 0 4 0 21 0 0 16 7 0 0 8 0 0 56 0 0 19 1 182 7 9 85 0 0 27 0 39 0 0 17 4 10 0 62 0 46 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 6 0 14 0 5 2 0 8 1 0 0 4 14 0 18 0 5 15 6 0 27 0 43 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 58 0 0 0 18 0 0 41 0 6 4 $ 0 0 3 10 0 0 9 32 6 41 10 35 1 0 6 5 0 0 0 0 25 168 0 11 2 10 0 14 0 0 0 0 23 179 10 103 0 0 9 81 0 20 0 6 8 46 0 30 111 32 99 0 0 12 ’ If vbias > 0 then the standard error estimate is biased low (or undefined) due to inadequate responses to the survey. 22 APPENDIX B 19 Appendix B. Standard errors of estimates by system for effort (days and hours fished), and fish kept and released by species for steelhead systems in Southeast Alaska in 1993. System Cutthroat Steelhead Rainbow Kokanee Dolly Vat-den VBias’ Days Hours Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Kept Released Admiralty Creek Anan Bay Andrew Creek Castle River Fish Creek Harding River Hugh Smith Lake Italio River Kadake Bay Kah Sheets Lake td Karta River + Kegan Creek Kook Lake McDonald Lake Petersburg Lake Red Bay Lake Reflection Lake Salmon Bay Lake Sarkar Lake Sitkoh Lake Situk River 0 25 0 13 0 0 1 43 0 123 0 4 0 33 0 14 0 0 0 87 1 84 0 88 1 12 0 52 0 36 0 22 0 21 0 32 0 26 0 35 0 54 111 9 38 0 0 0 149 11 160 15 11 0 132 0 76 4 0 0 377 30 387 221 217 31 88 0 231 10 154 0 159 1 122 7 155 11 163 12 190 5 340 9 254 30 49 57 0 94 62 14 4 19 0 67 377 199 26 55 10 11 42 119 31 162 44 126 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 3 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 2 4 0 1 17 0 0 1 0 3 86 2 0 43 0 0 11 10 0 3 38 13 15 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 19 32 13 0 16 0 0 11 4 26 0 14 0 19 0 0 97 15 0 0 2 0 122 237 24 17 70 7 0 7 25 86 53 27 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 0 0 Staney Creek 0 52 0 11 71 ’ vBias = the number of cabins without variance estimates; if vBias>O the standard error is biased low (or missing). 5 11 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 98 4 37 0 27 411 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 0 0 0 2 7 14 133 65 227 59 11 237 0 0 66 0 61 236 0 7 18 0 14 49 0 10 7 62 12 55 29 13 27 66 10 18 6 22 81 APPENDIX C 23 Appendix C . Sum and average of hours fished, harvest, and numbers released per responding party, for cutthroat trout and steelhead trout recreational surveys, by survey strata and mailing, 1993. Survey Spring Summer Fall Total Response 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cutthroat troutsurvey Sum of data Mean of data Hours Kept Released Hours Kept Released 279.0 119 241 17.4 7 15 173.0 32 121 15.7 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 6,451.S 1,020 6,394 37.5 6 37 2,228.O 560 2,910 32.8 8 43 1,342.O 264 1,441 31.2 6 34 1,594.l 241 2,608 37.1 6 61 854.0 154 668 38.8 7 30 343.0 92 598 49.0 13 85 13,264.g 2,482 14,981 34.7 6 39 Survey Spring Summer Fall Total Response 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 25 APPENDIX D 27 Appendix D. Summary of the number of reservations and average party size by seasonal strata for the cutthroat trout mailout survey. Survey System Cabin name Mean party Parties size Spring Baranof Lake Distin Lake Eagle Lake Ella Lake Florence Lake Goulding Lake Hasselborg Lake Humpback Lake Jims Lake Jordan Lake Lake Eva Orchard Lake Patching Lake Salmon Lake Sweetwater Lake Turner Lake Virginia Lake Young Lake Summer Bakewell Lake Baranof Lake Distin Lake Ella Lake Essowah Lake Florence Lake Goulding Lake Hasselborg Lake Heckman Lake Humpback Lake Jims Lake Jordan Lake Lake Alexander Lake Eva Lake Kathleen 1 2 3 3 4 8 2 1 1 4 3 5 1 7 7 1 1 19 12 1 4 12 2 5 12 15 6 15 28 12 6 10 7 8 27 19 29 16 19 25 15 24 31 9 0 0 1 1 3 3 4 0 2 3 2 3 0 1 3 1 0 4 3 1 2 4 1 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 3 1 3 1 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 Baranof Lake Distin Lake Sportsmen Eagle Lake Ella Narrows Red Alders East Florence West Florence Goulding Lake Big Shaheen Little Shaheen Humpback Lake Jims Lake Jordan Lake Lake Eva Plenty Cutthroat Patching Lake Salmon Lake 0 Sitka Sweetwater Lake East Turner West Turner Virginia Lake North Young Lake South Young Lake Bakewell Lake Baranof Lake Distin Lake Sportsmen Ella Narrows Red Alders Essowah Lake East Florence West Florence Goulding Lake Big Shaheen Hasselborg Creek Little Shaheen Heckman Lake Humpback Lake Jims Lake Jordan Lake Lake Alexander Lake Eva Lake Kathleen -continued- 29 Appendix D. (page 2 of 2). Survey System Cabin name Mean party Parties Size Manzanita Lake Orchard Lake Patching Lake Rainbow Lake Salmon Lake Sweetwater Lake Taku River Turner Lake Wilson Lake Young Lake Fall Bakewell Lake Distin Lake Eagle Lake Ella Lake Essowah Lake Florence Lake Goulding Lake Hasselborg Lake Heckman Lake Humpback Lake Jims Lake Jordan Lake Lake Alexander Lake Eva Lake Kathleen Manzanita Lake Orchard Lake Patching Lake Salmon Lake Sweetwater Lake Turner Lake Virginia Lake Wilson Lake Young Lake Beaver Camp 17 Manzanita Lake 31 Plenty Cutthroat 16 Patching Lake 17 Rainbow Lake 5 Salmon Lake 0 Sitka 23 Sweetwater Lake 34 Spruce Camp 19 East Turner 38 West Turner 33 Wilson Narrows 13 Wilson View 17 North Young Lake 24 South Young Lake 25 Bakewell Lake 5 Distin Lake 1 Sportsmen 2 Eagle Lake 2 Ella Narrows 21 Red Alders 13 Essowah Lake 3 East Florence 4 West Florence 3 Goulding Lake 3 Big Shaheen 5 Heckman Lake 17 Humpback Lake 9 Jims Lake 4 Jordan Lake 14 Lake Alexander 7 Lake Eva 1 Lake Kathleen 6 Beaver Camp 3 Manzanita Lake 10 Plenty Cutthroat 1 Patching Lake 8 Salmon Lake 0 Sitka 4 Sweetwater Lake 28 West Turner 1 Virginia Lake 7 Wilson Narrows 2 Wilson View 10 North Young Lake 6 South Young Lake 6 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 0 2 3 3 5 3 0 3 3 2 1 2 2 0 2 3 2 1 2 0 3 0 3 4 3 2 3 30 APPENDIX E 31 Appendix E. Summary of the number of reservations and average party size by seasonal strata for the steelhead mailout survey. Survey System Cabin name Parties Average party size Spring Admiralty Creek Anan Bay Andrew Creek Fish Creek Harding River Italio River Karta River Kegan Creek Kook Lake McDonald Lake Salmon Bay Lake Sarkar Lake Sitkoh Lake Situk River Staney Creek Summer Admiralty Creek Castle River Fish Creek Italio River Kadake Bay Kah Sheets Lake Karta River Kegan Creek Kook Lake McDonald Lake Petersburg Lake Red Bay Lake Reflection Lake Salmon Bay Lake Sarkar Lake Sitkoh Lake Admiralty Cove 13 Anan Bay 15 Mount Rynda 5 Fish Creek 19 Harding River 8 Italio River 1 Karta Lake 9 Karta River 12 Salmon Lake 0 Karta 2 Kegan Cove 2 Kook Lake 2 McDonald Lake 8 Salmon Bay Lake 3 Sarkar Lake 6 East Sitkoh Lake 5 West Sitkoh Lake 3 Middle Situk R. North 5 Middle Situk R. South 4 Situk Weir 3 Staney Creek 14 Admiralty Cove 42 Castle Flats 18 Castle River 17 Fish Creek 28 Italio River 9 Kadake Bay 7 Kah Sheets Bay 20 Kah Sheets Lake 24 Karta Lake 16 Karta River 15 McGilvery Creek 3 Salmon Lake 0 Karta 14 Kegan Cove 19 Kegan Creek 16 Kook Lake 12 McDonald Lake 16 Petersburg Lake 21 Red Bay Lake 12 Reflection Lake 15 Salmon Bay Lake 14 Sarkar Lake 32 East Sitkoh Lake 12 West Sitkoh Lake 15 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 0 3 0 4 3 3 5 1 3 2 4 3 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 -continued- 33 Appendix E. (page 2 of 2). Survey System Cabin name Parties Average party size Situk River Fall Staney Creek Admiralty Creek Castle River Fish Creek Harding River Hugh Smith Lake Kah Sheets Lake Karta River Kegan Creek McDonald Lake Red Bay Lake Reflection Lake Salmon Bay Lake Sarkar Lake Situk River Staney Creek Middle Situk R. North 9 Middle Situk R. South 11 Situk Lake 15 Situk Weir 15 Staney Creek 32 Admiralty Cove 12 Castle Flats 4 Castle River 2 Fish Creek 27 Harding River 1 Hugh Smith Lake 11 Kah Sheets Bay 1 Karta Lake 17 Karta River 20 McGilvery Creek 1 Salmon Lake 0 Karta 3 Kegan Cove 5 Kegan Creek 6 McDonald Lake 9 Red Bay Lake 6 Reflection Lake 5 Salmon Bay Lake 12 Sarkar Lake 13 Middle Situk R. North 3 Middle Situk R. South 2 Staney Creek 30 4 4 3 3 4 3 2 1 3 2 3 0 3 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 0 3 34 APPENDIX F 35 Appendix F. List of data files and analysis programs developed for the cabin survey study, 1993.” Data File Description CTVARS.SAS SAS program to read CTPTY93.PRN and produce Table 1 and Appendix Table A. SHVARS.SAS SAS program to read SHPTY93.PRN and produce Table 2 and Appendix Table B. CTPTY93.PRN Data listing of catch, harvest, kept, and released by season, system, and party for the cutthroat trout survey. SHPTY93.PRN Data listing of catch, harvest, kept, and released by season, system, and party for the steelhead survey. 1993-PGl .XLS The first page of survey information and responses CT-SHT2.XLS Responses to cutthroat trout questionaire for those parties that fished. SH-SHT2.XLS Responses to steelhead questionnaire for those parties that fished. “Data files are archived at, and available from, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Sport Fish, Research and Technical Services, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99518-1599. 37 APPENDIX G. QUESTIONNAIRE 39 40 Alaska Department of Fish & Game Recreational Cabin Survey Dear Mr.&h-s. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, the Division of Sport Fish is currently studying fish in >. Because you reserved a cabin at >, we are asking for your assistance. Information about any fishing you or anyone with you (your party) may have done while using that reservation is important to our study. Please complete the attached form to the best of your ability, then return the form in the enclosed addressed and stamped envelope. Your responses will remain strictly confidential; only the summary of information from all respondents will be published. If you wish a copy of the summary, please specify so in the additional comment box, and we will mail you one as soon as they are available. Thank you for your participation in our study. Your information and that of other anglers will help perpetuate our opportunities to enjoy Alaska through recreational fishing. Doug Jones Fisheries Biologist Division of Sport Fish 41 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G. QUESTIONNAIRE
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